P.M. Alternator
Output in Watts

Feet of Net Head
outputtbl1 (30K)

Maximum Wattage at Various Voltages

maxwatt (4K)

Maximum Efficient Flow at Various Heads

Figures in gallons/min
Feet of Net Head
maxeffic (15K)


Turbine output is determined by 4 factors:

1. Head, or vertical drop from source to turbine nozzle:

Head can be measured with a transit or level and a measuring stick of known length in successive steps. A quick pipe can be assembled from numerous garden hoses and the pressure can be measured with the hoses full of water. This, too, can be done in successive steps.

0.43 P.S.I. = 1 foot of head:
2.3 feet = 1 psi

2. Flow in gallons per minute passing through nozzle:

A temporary dam can be built to measure flow. By timing the filling of a container of known volume, the flow can be determined. Care should be taken to not dry up creeks, but to leave enough water to maintain natural environmental balances.

3. Diameter, length, and condition of feeder pipe:

Generally, single nozzle systems with under 2000 feet of feeder pipe require a 2" pipe. A two nozzle system needs a 3" pipe, and a 4 nozzle system requires a 4" pipe. This will keep pipe losses under 25%. Please inquire about specific pipe losses for your site.

4.Turbine efficiency:

Alternator systems are between 30% and 70% efficient.

Site Evaluation

The following information will assist in selecting the best system for your site:

1. Head, or drop in elevation from source to turbine site

2. Flow in gallons per minute to be used

3. Length, size, and condition of pipe to be used

4. Distance from turbine to point of power use

5. Desired system voltage (12v, 24v, or 48v)

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